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引用 动名词与现在分词用法的区别   

2013-02-16 23:14:42|  分类: 诗文 |  标签: |举报 |字号 订阅

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动名词与现在分词用法的区别

动词的-ing形式按功能可分为动名词和现在分词。动词的-ing形式何时为动名词,何时为现在分词。首先,我们要从概念上区分。动词的-ing形式在起名词作用时,称为动名词;用作形容词或副词时,称为现在分词。其次,我们要从用法方面区分动词的-ing形式是动名词还是现在分词。

一、动词的-ing形式用作主语时为动名词,现在分词不可以用作主语。

1.动名词用作主语.

Reading French is easier than speaking it. 阅读法文比讲法语容易。

Talking to him is talking to a wall. 和他说话等于对牛弹琴。

Smoking can cause cancer. 吸烟会致癌。

Growing roses is her hobby. 种玫瑰是她的爱好。

2.有时it作形式主语,把动名词主语放在句子后面

It’s nice seeing you again. 再次见到你太好了。

It was tiring driving from morning till night. 从早到晚开车很累人。

It’s a wonder meeting you here. 在这里碰到你真是奇迹。

It was a waste of time reading that book. 看那本书是浪费时间。

3. “There is + no”后可以用动名词作主语

There was no knowing what he could do. 他能做什么很难说。

There was no arguing with her. 没法和她争论。

二、动词的-ing形式用作宾语时为动名词,现在分词不可以用作宾语。

1.有许多动词可接动名词作宾语

I suggested bringing the meeting to an end. 我建议结束会议。

So you prefer living abroad? 这样说你更愿意住在国外?

He kept complaining. 他不停地抱怨。

I finished reading the book last night. 这书我昨晚看完了。

2.有许多带介词的动词固定搭配接动名词作宾语

He has given up playing football. 他现在不踢足球了。

Prices keep on increasing. 价格不断上涨。

三、当动词的-ing形式用作状语时为现在分词,动名词不可以用作状语。

现在分词及其短语可以用作状语,表示时间、原因、结果、条件、让步、方式或伴随情况等。其动作可能发生在谓语之前或之后,也可能与谓语动词的动作同时发生。

Climbing to the top of the tower, we saw a magnificent view.

我们爬到塔顶后,看到了一片壮丽的景象。(表时间)

Living in the country, we had few social engagements.

我们住在乡下,交际的机会很少。(表原因)

Having money, he will buy a bigger car.(表条件)

Knowing the secret, she would not tell me about it..(表让步)

The child fell, striking his head against the door and cutting it.

那孩子跌倒了,头碰在门上碰破了.(表结果)

He stood leaning against the wall. 他靠墙站着.(表方式或伴随情况)

四、动名词与现在分词都可以用作表语,当动词的-ing的作用相当于名词时为动名词。当动词的-ing的作用相当于形容词时,动词的-ing为现在分词。

1.动名词用作表语

Her hobby is painting. 她的爱好是绘画。

Her job was tending the sheep. 她的工作是放羊。

The main thing is getting there in time. 首要的事是及时到达那里。

2.现在分词用作表语

The news is encouraging. 这消息令人鼓舞。

This story is very interesting. 这个故事很有趣。

The day was so charming. 天气真是好极了。

The difference was most striking. 差别很明显。

五、动名词与现在分词都可以用作定语

现在分词表示其所修饰的名词的动作,即: 现在分词与其所修饰的名词在逻辑上具有主谓关系。通常能改为一个定语从句。动名词则表示其修饰的名词的性质,或用途或功能. 两者在逻辑上无主谓关系。因此,只能改为一个for加动名词的短语。

1.动名词作定语,动名词表性质或用途或功能。

swimming pool  游泳池          drinking water  饮用水

swimming suit  游泳衣           waiting room  候车室

sleeping bag  睡袋               parking lot  停车场

sleeping pill  安眠药             writing desk  写字桌      

sewing machine  缝纫机          writing paper  信纸        

operating table  手术室           checking account  活期账户

diving suit  潜水衣                reading room  阅览室

diving board  跳板                playing ground  运动场

washing machine  洗衣机          boxing competition  拳击比赛

washing powder  洗衣粉           speaking contest  演讲比赛

fishing pole  钓鱼杆               fishing line  钓鱼线

2.现在分词作定语

developing countries  发展中国家     a booming town  日渐繁荣的城镇

growing doubts  越来越大的怀疑     the existing condition  现有条件

the remaining days  剩下的岁月       lasting peace  持久的和平

a falling star  流星                  the leading newspapers  主要报纸

the ruling class  统治阶级            living things  有生命的东西

the ageing population  老化的人口     the rising generation  成长的一代

六、动名词与现在分词都可以用作补语,但现在分词用作宾语补语时,与前面的宾语构成复合宾语。

具有这种复合宾语的动词多为表示感觉的动词,如:smell, observe, watch, notice, look at, listen to 等。另外,有些使役动词如have, set, get, catch, keep, leave等可以后面接含有现在分词的复合宾语。还有,作为宾语补语的现在分词有时前面可有as,前面的动词多用regard, consider, describe, see, think of 等。现在分词用作主语补语,多用在被动结构中,与主语构成复合主语。而动名词作补语对相应的动词却没这些规定。

1.动名词用作补语

I call this robbing Peter to pay Paul. 我管这叫做拆东墙补西墙。

robbing是宾语补语)

This is called turning things upside down. 这叫做把事物颠倒了。

turning 是主语补语)

2.现在分词用作补语

We found him waiting to receive us. 我们发现他等着欢迎我们。

We kept the fire burning all the time. 我们使火一直燃烧着。

They described the young man as having initiative and drive.他们说这青年积极肯干。

He was seen going upstairs. 有人看见他上楼。

 

 

现在分词和动名词练习

1)现在分词

1. The old farmer,________ the badly-injured and wounded soldier, came out of the

burning house, ________for help.

A. supporting; calling      B. supported by; called

C. being supported by; called     D. being supporting; called
2. --- Oh, it’s already a quarter past six. What shall we do at the meeting this evening?
  ---- We’ll go on with the matter________ this afternoon.
  A. be discussed       B. being discussing    C. discussed      D. which discussed
3. The brave man died,________ his young wife nothing but a________ cottage.
  A. left; breaking        B. leaving; broken
  C. left; broken        D. to leave; breaking
4. ________hard before, Tom is afraid of failing in the exam.
  A. Having been worked          B. Not to have worked
  C. Having never worked         D. Never have worked
5.________the exam, the boy was punished by his father.
  A. No passing         B. Having passed
  C. Not passing         D. Not having passed
6. Time________, I can have done it better.
  A. permit    B. be permitted    C. permitting    D. to permit
7.________, the boy couldn’t enter his house.
  A. Since the key has lost          B. The key been lost
  C. Lost the key         D. Having lost the key
8. ________into many languages, the story is well known all over the world now.
  A. Being translated            B. Having translated
  C. To be translated           D. Having been translated
9. ________for the terrible accident, as the public thought, the mayor felt nervous and   

was at a loss what to do.

A. Having blamed   B. To blame   C. Being to be blame   D. Being to blame
10. ________from heart trouble for years, Professor White has to take some medicine

with him wherever he goes.

A. Suffered    B. To suffer    C. Having suffered    D. Being suffered
11. ________from what he said, he must be the thief who has stolen the car.
   A. Judging    B. Judged    C. To judge    D. Judge
12. ________with fright, a hungry fox hid himself in a small cave, ________his tail to  

the rain.

A. Trembling; exposing         B. Trembled; exposed

C. Trembled; exposing         D. Trembling; exposed
13. Many teachers were praised at the meeting, Mr. Zhou________.
   A. including   B. being including    C. to include    D. included
14. ----Who were those people with the flags?
   ----A group________itself the League of Peace.
   A. calls    B. calling    C. called    D. being called
15. ________you the truth, she knows nothing about it.
   A. Tell    B. Telling    C. To tell    D. Told
16. We slept with the light________ all night long last night.
   A. burnt    B. to burn    C. being burnt    D. burning
17. Linda can’t attend the party________ at Tom’s house at present because she is  

preparing a speech for the party________ at Marie’s house tomorrow.
   A. being held; to be held         B. to be held; held
   C. held; being held         D. to be held; to be held
18. The situation is more ________than ever. I’m ________about what to do next.
   A. puzzled; puzzled     B. puzzling; puzzling
   C. puzzling; puzzled     D. puzzled; puzzling
19. When________ that it was getting late, I put off the light and went to bed.
   A. find    B. finding    C. found    D. to find
20. ________her mother had come, her face lit up.
   A. Hearing    B. Having heard     

C. When hearing     D. When she heard
21. Daddy didn’t mind what we were doing, as long as we were together, _______fun.   

A. had      B. have     C. to have    D. having
22. Don't leave the water _____ while you brush your teeth.

A. run    B. running    C. being run    D. to run
23. The picture _________ on the wall is painted by my nephew.
   A.having hung        B.hanging       C.hangs       D.being hung
24. I couldn’t do my homework with all that noise _______.
   A. going on    B. goes on     C. went on    D. to go on
25. ______from other continents for millions of years, Australia has many plants and  

animals not found in any other country in the world.

A.Being separated         B. Having separated  

C. Having been separated      D. To be separated
26. A cook will be immediately fired if he is found______in the kitchen.
      

A. smoke   B. smoking   C. to smoke   D. smoked
27. He sent me an E-mail, _______ to get further information.
   A. hoped     B. hoping   C. to hope    D. hope

key: 1-5. ACBCD      6-10 CDDDC      11-15 AADBC

16-20 DACBD    21-27 DBBACBB

2 动名词
1. No one enjoys_______at.
 A. laughing  B. to laugh   C. being laughed  D. to be laughed
2. You must do something to prevent your house_______    
 .
 A. to be broken in   B. from being broken in
 C. to break in   D. from breaking in
3. They insisted on_______another chance to try.
 A. given  B. giving  C. being given  D. to be given
4. —Where is my passport? I remember_______it here.
 —You shouldn't have left it here. Remember_______it with you all the time.
 A. to put; to take   B. putting ;taking

C. putting ;to take   D. to put ;taking
5. His room needs_______, so he must have it       .
 A. painting; painted  B. painted; painting
 C. painting; painting  D. painted; painted
6. After finishing his homework he went on_______a letter to his parents.
 A.write  B.writing  C.wrote  D.to write
7. The young trees we planted last week require_______with great care.
 A. looking after  B. to look after

C. to be looked after   D. taken good care of
8. Only_______English doesn't mean_______the language.
 A.to learn; to learn     B.learning; learning
 C.learning about; learn   D.learning about; learning
9. She returned home only to find the door open and something_______.
 A.missed  B.to be missing    C.missing   D.to be missed
10. She decided to devote herself_______the problem of old age.
 A.to study    B.studying    C.to studying    D.study
11. Remember_______the newspaper when you have finished it.
 A.putting back  B.put back   C.to put back   D.be put back
12. As she is looking forward to_______from me, please remember______this letter  

on your way to school. 
 A.hear; post    B.hearing; to post

C.be heard; posting   D.be hearing; to posting
13. Grandma said that she had a lot of trouble_______your handwriting.
 A.to read  B.to see  C.reading  C.in seeing
14. Writing stories and articles_______what I enjoy most.
 A.is  B.are  C.was  D.were
15. We appreciate_______us to the ball.
 A. them to invite  B. to invite   C. their inviting   D. being invited
16. Would you mind_______quiet for a moment? I'm trying_______a form.
 A. keeping; filling out     B. to keep; to fill out
 C. keeping; to fill out     D. to keep; filling out
17. He was afraid_______for being late.
 A.of seeing  B.of being seen   C.to be seen  D.to have seen
18. I'd like to suggest_______the meeting till next week.
 A. to put off    B. putting off    C. put off  D. to be put off
19. I don't see how I could possibly manage_______the work without
     .

A. finish; helping       B. to finish; being helped
 C. finishing; helping    D. finishing; being helped
20. Anything worth_______is worthy of_______well.
 A.doing; being done     B. doing; doing
 C. to be done; to be done    D. to be done; being done
21. We advised them to take a rest, but they insisted_______the work.
 A.finish  B.to finish  C.in finishing    D.on finishing
22. I delayed_______your letter because I had been away for a week.
 A.answer  B.answering  C.writing  D.to post
23. The thief drove as fast as he could to escape_______by the police.
 A.to be caught  B.he caught   C.being caught  D.catching
24. I searched for my wallet and it wasn't there. At first, I thought I_______it at home.   

Then I remembered_______it out to pay for the taxi.
 A.must have left; to take   B.may leave; taking
 C.might leave; to take    D.could have left; taking
25. _______the news of his father's death, he burst into tears.
 A.After hearing  B.On hearing   C.While hearing D.Having heared
26. _______his mother, the baby could not help
    .
 A.To see; to laugh  B.Seeing; to laugh
 C. Seeing; laughing  D.To see; laughing
27. It's no use_______so much money on clothes.
 A.spend  B.spent  C.spending  D.being spent
28. The sentence needs_______.
 A.improve  B.a improvement   C.improving  D.improved
29. If he succeeded_______a job, his children wouldn't be suffering from hunger
 

now.
 A.to find  B.to look for   C.in finding   D.in looking for
30. I still remember_______to my home town when I was young.
 A.taking  B.taken  C.being taken   D.to take
  1-5 CBCCA
  6-10.DADCC   11-15.CBCAC 

16-20.CBBBA   21-25.DBCDB 26-30.CCCCC 

 

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